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After introducing the text, the tradition, and the figure of the yogini, chapters 2 and 3 review the extant literary, art- historical, and epigraphic sources concerned with yoginis, with a focus on the background and early development of their Saiva cult. AIIS Photo Archive 43 2.6 Horse-headed yogini from Lokhari, U. Photograph by Vidya Dehejia, published in Dehejia, Yogini Cult and Temples, 159 43 2.7 Camunda and Vinayaka/Ganesa, Ramesvara Cave (no. Saptamatr cliff shrine be- tween Badoh and Pathari, Madhya Pradesh. AIIS Photo Archive 71 2.14 Siva "Gajasamharamurti," Vaital Deul temple, Bhuvanesvar. ) err ' syllables marked by the scribe as erroneous ac ante correctionem P c post correctionem f., ff. Luciano Petech records the colophon and date of the manuscript as follows: "Ms. Colophon: samvat 100-50-2 Magha-suklastamyam adityadine R.-P.-sn-Baladeva-rajye sri- Pasupativastavya srf-Jayakaraj Tvena Brahmayamalam nama sastram likhitam. The date is verified for Sunday, January 12th, 1052." Petech, Mediaeval History of Nepal (circa 750-14.82), 2nd ed., 44.It is within this context that the Brahmayamala is situated. AIIS Photo Archive 40 2.5 Bird-headed Mother goddess carrying an infant in her likeness. AIIS Photo Archive 59 2.9 Saptamatr Panel, with Virabhadra (left) and Ganesa (right). AIIS Photo Archive 59 viii IX 2.10 Yaksa at pillar base, Nagarjunakonda. AIIS Photo Archive 62 2.11 Theriomorphic gana or dvdrapdla. AIIS Photo Archive 72 2.15 Frontal view of the Hirapur yogini temple. (Petech's samvat 100-50-2 is a typographical error for samvat 100-70-2; the ms reads samvat a cu 2 -) 2 The dating of the Brahmayamala is addressed in chapter 4, section 3.

IV Contents List of Tables vii List of Figures viii I History and Sources 1 1 Introduction 2 1.1 The Brahmayamalatantra and Cult of Yogin Ts 2 1.2 The Brahmayamala in Scholarship 23 1.3 A Note on Conventions 29 2 Early Evidence for the Cult of Yoginis: the Literary, Sculptural, and Epi- graphic Sources 31 2.1 Introduction: Yoginis and Mother Goddesses 31 2.2 Early Sources 35 2.3 The Later Literary Evidence 73 2.4 Temples of the Yoginis 110 2.5 Conclusions 128 3 The Cult of Yoginis and its Background in Early Tantric Literature 131 3.1 Introduction 131 3.2 The Background of the Yogini Cult in Tantric Saiva Literature 133 3.3 Scriptures of the Saiva Yogini Cult: the Vidyapltha and Kaula 153 v VI 3.4 Yoginis in Early Buddhist Tantric Literature 162 3.5 Buddhist and Saiva "Yogimtantras": the Case of the Brahmayamala and Laghucakrasamvaratantra 175 3.6 Conclusions 187 4 The Content, Structure, and Provenance of the Brahmayamala 190 4.1 Introduction: Select Topics in the Brahmayamala 190 4.2 Structure and Textual Strata 200 4.3 On the Provenance of the Brahmayamala 211 5 To Name a Tantra: Identity, History, and the Saiva Canon in the Epithets of the Brahmayamala 237 5.1 Brahmayamala 238 5.2 Picumata 243 5.3 Navaksaravidhana: the "Method of Nine Syllables" 251 5.4 Mulatantra: the "Root Scripture" 258 5.5 Dvadasasahasraka: the "Tantra of Twelve-Thousand Verses" 273 5.6 Vimala and the Ucchusmatantra 275 6 Conclusion 282 II The Brahmayamala: A Critical Edition and Translation of Chapters i, ii, lv, lxxiii, and xcix 285 Appendices 424 A Chapter Colophons of the Brahmayamala in its Oldest Nepalese Codex (nak 3-370) 425 Works Cited 434 List of Tables 3.1 A parallel passage in Brahmayamala lxxxiv and Laghusamvara 26 178 4.1 Forms of Bhairava in the Brahmayamala 192 4.2 Siddhantatantras of the Middle Stream ( madhyamasrotas ) according to Bra Ya XXXVIII 217 4.3 Tantras of the Left Stream ( vamasrotas ) and Lower Stream ( adhahsrotas ) . 4 1.2 nak 3-370, detail of folios 3V and 4r, left third 4 1.3 Siva enshrined within a circle of sixty-four yoginls. AIIS Photo Archive 12 2.1 Mother goddess bearing lotus and infant, making the abhayamudra. AIIS Photo Archive 38 2.2 Skanda (left) and five mdtrs. AIIS Photo Archive (detail) 116 2.22 Veneration of sandals representing a yogini, depicted below a yogini im- age's pedestal. AIIS Photo Archive 119 5.1 The 'Origin of Scripture' ( Sivatantrotpatti ) according Nisvasatantra, Uttarasutra 1.23-25 260 5.2 The 'Descent of Scripture' ( sastrdvatdra ) according to Svacchandatantra 8 . 261 5.3 The 'Descent of Scripture' (sastrdvatdra) according to Brahmaydmala 1 and xxxviii 263 Abbreviations Bra Ya Brahmayamala nak National Archives of Kathmandu ngmpp Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project ksts Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies tss Trivandrum Sanskrit Series aiis American Institute of Indian Studies ms, mss manuscript(s) cod. A glimpse of the authority it once commanded may be had in the writing of the Kashmiri polymath Abhinavagupta (fl. E.), who cited the scripture often despite its degree of cultic and doctrinal remoteness .The typesetting of the critical edition of the Brahmayamala using DTp X was in no small measure enabled by technical help from Dr. Fortunately, the product of his labors found its way into the manuscript collections of Nepalese royalty, and is today housed in the National Archives in Kathmandu.Somadeva Vasudeva, from whom I have learned much concerning Saivism as well. 1 But for this, precious little knowledge of a vast and important pre ninth-century work would have been possible, 2 a fate which has befallen all too many works of tantric literature.I am particularly indebted to the lat- ter, who first taught me Sanskrit and supervised my m.a. Professors Michael Meister and Guy Welbon, members of the dissertation committee, have been continual sources of knowledge and encouragement over nearly a decade, and I am grateful for their feedback on the dissertation at various stages in its formation. Harunaga Isaacson, from whom I have learned much of what I know; I am lost for ii Ill words to express my gratitude for his years of painstaking mentorship. I have also benefited from the opportunity to present and dis- cuss work drawn from or connected with the dissertation at the AIIS Junior Fellows' Conference in Gurgaon (January 2006), the University of Virginia at Charlottesville (November 2006), the Workshop on Early Saivism at Pondicherry (January 2007), and Concordia University (January 2007). Harunaga Isaacson for sharing extensive material with me, in- cluding transcriptions of manuscripts of unpublished sources; to Dr.Without his detailed feedback on drafts of this thesis, it would have been a much inferior work. The present study would have been much poorer but for the increasing avail- ability of searchable electronic texts. Judit Torzsok, who provided me an electronic copy of her edition of the Siddhayogesvanmata; and to Prof. a marginal or interlinear insertion (...) syllables only faintly legible x XI By q Brahmayamala codex nak 3-370 (in part 1) A Brahmayamala codex nak 3-370 (in the edition and translation) By b Bra Ya codex nak 5-1929 (in part 1) B Bra Ya codex nak 5-1929 (in the edition and translation) By c Bra Ya codex nak 1-143 (in part 1) C Bra Ya codex nak 1-143 (i n the edition and translation) BY d Bra Ya codex nak 1-286 (in part 1) D Bra Ya codex nak 1-286 (in the edition and translation) BY e Bra Ya codex nak 6-2608 (in part 1) E Bra Ya codex nak 6-2608 (in the edition and translation) Kjn coc? Bagchi's edition of the Kaulajhananirnaya (see bibliography) S T ksts Svacchandatantra, ksts edition ST corf Svacchandatantra, ms nak 1-224 Ts k,kh 'g Tantrasabhdva mss "ka," "kha," and "ga," as reported by Dyczkowski Part I History and Sources Chapter i Introduction 1.1 THE BRAHMAYAMALATANTRA AND CULT OF YOGINIS On the eighth day of the waxing moon of the month of Magha in the year 172, Nepal -samvat — Sunday, 12 January, 1052 c.e.

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